- 1. perpetuators proliferate - Stanford tautologies
- 2. "Favorable ones become more common - Wikipedia, Citizendium"... Becoming common in the MalThus struggle for life or natural means of competitive preservationPatrick Matthew implies the creatures were favorable, no opposite to the proposition can be formulated, it is a claim of logic(what happens, happens). Rhetorical tautologies and contradictions are not pictures of reality, since they do not represent possible situations or states of affairs. "Favorable" implies and is implied by(<=>) "becoming more common" showing us all possible situations or states of affairs. Contradictions show us no possible situations or states of affairs. Ref http://forums.philosophyforums.com/threads/wittgenstein-a-summary-41631-2.html and (T. 4.462) from Wittgenstein. Sentences which are claims of logic and containing the oxymoron Natural Selection, explaining everything and nothing at the same time, are Meaningless sentences. By this is meant that if oxymoron ns is not used as metaphor for unintentional adaptation. Oxymorons and pleonasms can be used metaphorically for anything - define your terms.
- 3. lower fitness creatures are removed (lower <=> removed)- http://academia.wikia.com/wiki/Malthusian_Selection#Natural_Selection
- 4. beneficial ones will tend to become more numerous (beneficial <=> numerous) - http://conservapedia.com/Natural_selection
- 5. Of these the fit ones persisted, while the unfit ones disappeared.(fit <=> persisted) - Lucretius http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A12&pageseq=1
- 6. One with the greatest rate of increase is the one that will become the new predominant allele (greatest rate <=> predominant) - http://groups.google.com/group/talk.origins/browse_thread/thread/deac2432776866c6/b7fce5490e4d08d6#b7fce5490e4d08d6
- 7. Those constituted were preserved (constituted <=> preserved)- http://tautology.wikia.com/wiki/Aristotle. It is this claim of logic that Darwin wrote .... we can see here the principle of natural selection shadowed forth ..... Darwin took a claim of logic and invoked it as a mechanism.
- 8 James Hutton 1791 - "......Those not adapted will perish, while those adapted for the circumstances, will be the best adapted. ......"
- Empedocles-(600BC) "...Those animals perished immediately, for they were not fitted to live, and only those random coalitions of elements which were fittest to live survived, and continue to survive today...."
- Aristotle(500BC) - "....Things appropriately constituted were preserved and things not appropriately constituted perished...."
- Democritus - "...Those in harmony maintained themselves, while the unfit disappear... "
A Pleonasm allows for an opposite sense to be implied in a sentence - Tautological expressions, which differs from Tautological assertions or logical validity - claims which must be true by logical necessity, not falsifiable under any conditions. Physics equations aren't true by logical necessity but falsifiable due to experimental observation.
Oxymoron is the opposite of pleonasm. Pleonasms aren't tautologies, Only sentences can be tautologies. Pleonasm has the intuitive sense of saying the same thing twice but doesn't guarantee the truth of the proposition like a rhetorical tautology does. Meaning that a RT explains everything under all conditions. An oxymoron has the sense of being contradictory but isn't, only a premise represented with a sentence can be non-explanatory under all conditions. Rhetorical tautologies guarantee the truth of the proposition, where the expectation was for a falsifiable construct. Logical tautologies guarantee the the truth of the proposition and is expected to do so by logical necessity. John Wilkins series of articles dealing with the tautology problem equivocated between these two concepts by not defining what he means with tautology. The term tautology itself doesn't differentiate between the concepts.
Biologists can't define the universal mechanism it claims to study, it opted to equivocate between claims of logic and mechanism, much like John Wilkins equivocated between Tautological assertions, propositions and Tautological expressions.